Kidneys are a pair of organs that are part of your urinary system. They remove waste and extra water from your blood and pass it through a ureter into your bladder. Urine collects in the hollow space in the middle of each kidney, called the renal pelvis. While there are several forms of kidney cancer, nine out of ten cases of kidney cancer begin in the renal pelvis. Kidney cancer is rare in people under the age of 55. It is estimated that over 56,000 people a year are diagnosed with kidney cancer each year in the United States.
Smoking is the most important risk factor for kidney cancer. Other factors include obesity, high blood pressure and a family history of kidney cancer. A rare disease, Von Hippel-Lindau Syndrome also increases the risk of kidney cancer. Later stage symptoms include blood in the urine, side abdominal pain, unexpected weight loss and fatigue.